One of the most important examinations of the desire to have children is the spermiogram, the examination of the semen sample. The man delivers a semen sample (ejaculate) after a waiting period of 3 – 5 days.
After liquefaction, it is determined:
- the volume of the sample,
- the number of sperm cells (sperm) per milliliter (sperm cell density),
- the total number of sperm cells in the delivered sample,
- which percentage of sperm cells is moving rapidly or slowly (progressive motility) or proportion of motile sperm (stationary motility) and immobile sperm cells
- which percentage of sperm cells has a normal form (proportion of pathological sperm cell).
- Through this investigation, a slight or severe procreation restriction can be found in the meantime many fertility couples. If the man has this investigation done as soon as possible at the beginning of the investigation, he can often spare his wife unnecessary and burdensome examinations and treatments.
In at least one third of the couples with unfulfilled desire to have a baby, the male partner is less likely to procreate. In 25% there are problems in the fertility of both partners.
The standard values have been set by the World Health Organization (WHO).
A poor finding of the semen sample alone is not meaningful! We recommend to repeat the examination after 6-12 weeks. Before the second finding, it is not possible to speak of a procreation restriction. The findings should be made within 60 to the longest 120 minutes after ejaculation. → To deliver the semen sample
The following values must appear on your findings:
|General values||Normal values of the WHO||Causes of abnormal findings|
|Date of the finding||Not older than 6 months|
|Abstinence / parental leave in days (no ejaculation during this time – before submission of the sample!)||3 – 5 days||<3 days: Findings may be falsified!|
|Volume of sample **||1.5 milliliters and more||Prostateids, part of the sample spilled, high stress during delivery, waiting period was not met|
|liquefaction time||Within 30-60 minutes||With large deviation> Clarification!|
|pH – value||7.2 to 8.0||Prostateids, inflammation|
|leukocytes||Less than 1 million / ml||Inflammation, urological control recommended|
|Concentrated / dense sperm per milliliter (ml)||more than 20/15 ** million sperm per milliliter (ml)|
|Total number of sperm cells **||more than 39 million|
|Mobility of spermatozoa in%:||at least 40% **|
|a. fast moving forward||more than 25%|
|b. total forward||a + b more than 32% ** (50%)|
|c. local Mobile||less than 50%|
|agility||a + b + c ** at least 40%|
|d. motionless||d less than 50%|
|Vital (live) sperm||Min. 58% ** (75%)|
|Morphology / shape of the sperm cells in%||Unobtrusively shaped spermatozoa> 4% ** (30%)|
** WHO 5th Ed.
Please note that we occasionally also determine other parameters (eg: long-term mobility, bacterial culture, MAR test, etc.), which we explain to you and your partner in detail during the findings meeting.
At the beginning of the semen sample, a clinical examination of the external genital area of the man and the prostate is required. In addition, an ultrasound examination (sonography) of the testes is carried out as part of the initial consultation (collection of risk factors and pre-existing conditions).
Only after the result of the semen sample is decided on the necessity of further investigations (Farbduplexsonographie of the testicles, blood investigation).